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Title: γ-胺基丁酸對生理機能應用之回顧
Physiology Functional Application of γ-Amino Butyric Acid - A Review
Authors: 林玥妦
Lin, Jueh Feng
Keywords: γ-胺基丁酸
Gama-aminobutyric acid
Date: 2012
Issue Date: 2013-11-01 11:32:57 (UTC+8)
Abstract: γ-胺基丁酸(Gama-aminobutyric acid,簡稱GABA)是一種非蛋白胺基酸,主要存在人體的腦部,是目前所發現最主要的抑制性神經傳導物質。GABA具有許多生理功效,從相關文獻證實:(1)降血壓:藉由活化GABA的受體導致血管擴張及抑制ACE的活性達到降低血壓的作用;(2)幫助睡眠:活化GABAA受體會增加慢波睡眠及抑制奇異睡眠;(3)抗焦慮:在GABAA的存在下,benzodiazepines使氯離子通道開啟的頻率增加,因而增強GABA的抑制作用;(4)抗衰老:GABA與GABAA受體的促效劑能減少V1細胞老化;(5)生殖作用:GABA藉由使膜電位改變進而影響鈣離子的通透性,造成細胞內鈣離子濃度的上升引發精子的頂體反應;(6)皮膚癒合:有效抑制發炎反應,刺激表皮細胞再生;(7)胃腸運動:GABA可透過其受體來調控胃腸運動;(8)其他功能:作為飼料添加使禽畜提高存活率,維持穩定生長。
GABA is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. Many studies have showed that GABA was involved in many physiological functions. (1) Activated GABA receptor induces vasodilation and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. The blood vessel relaxation leads to decrease blood pressure. (2) It is well established that activation of GABAA receptors favors sleep. The GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory processes decrease waking and increase slow-wave sleep and the paradoxical sleep is decreased by agonistic modulators of GABAA receptors. (3) Benzodiazepine-induced conformational changes increase GABA's receptor affinity, and thus increase the frequency of ion channel openings. Chloride ion influx hyperpolarizes GABA neurons and produces GABA's inhibitory interneuronal effects. (4) Adding GABA and GABA agonists improve the function of cells in the visual cortex (area V1) and facilitate visual function in old animals. (5) The activation of GABAA receptor leading to Ca2+ channels opening are involved in progesterone-induced acrosomal exocytosis in mouse spermatozoa. (6)To inhibit the inflammatory response and stimulate the epidermal revive. (7)GABA receptors control gastrointestinal motility. (8) Be supplement feed to make domestic birds and animail health.
Many Lactic acid bacterium (LAB) studies found, these beneficial effects not only came from bacterium itself but also metabolism products, including lactic acid, bacteriocin, polysaccharide and GABA.
The thesis review and summarize these publications and according to these studies, we believed that GABA is worthy to develop and apply in functional food.
Appears in Collections:[生物科技系暨生物醫學研究所] 博碩士論文

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